ASTM F MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE. FOR FALL ACCIDENT INJURY CRITERIA. Macky KATO1, Yoshie SHIMODAIRA2, Takeshi SATO3 and Hiromi. specification for playground surfacing performance (ASTM F). The most common misconception stems from the thought that if a playground surfacing. F, the voluntary standard for measuring impact attenuation of can meet the impact attenuation requirements of ASTM F, as long.

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The major increase in injury data seems to be directly related to the type of surface system. This height can be considered as an atm of the fall height below which a life-threatening head injury would not be expected to occur.

In the conventional wisdom within the industry was that most available loose-fill compacted surface systems at a minimum depth of 12 inches would result in a fall impact that would well bellow the current thresholds at a fall of 10 feet or less.

Consequently, the specification is appropriately used to determine the actual impact attenuation performance of installed playground surfaces under ambient conditions of use.

Approximately half of the children under the age of two had head or facial injuries and 41 percent of them were injured with public playground equipment 5. They can be added to the value measured by the shortened procedure. How was that test sample installed at the lab in the specified 18 inch square test box? Overall, the majority of the fall accident victims are elderly people, many of whom trip over in flat places. It is not easy to reveal the reliability of applying transformation equation, because the estimation by the standard procedure of ASTM F includes the measurement error range.

Studies in Great Britain and Australia have stated there appears to be no conclusive evidence that surfacing systems reduce the frequency and severity of injuries from falls to the surface. What if any serious injuries have we reduced over the past 30 years? This study was supported by Japan Park Facilitate Association.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

In addition, many have been arguing growth plate fractures are permanently debilitating even though the ASTM F The critical fall height of a playground surfacing material determined under laboratory conditions does not account for important factors that have the potential to influence the actual performance of installed surfacing materials.


It is probably a combination of all of these factors. I for one do not subscribe to this notion and believe that a well thought out research study that analyzes all the factors related to the cause and effect of falls injuries will show: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The Head Injury Criterion or HIC score is an empirical measure of atm severity based on published research describing the relationship between the magnitude and duration of impact accelerations and the risk of head ashm.

The HIC is defined as a specific integral of the acceleration-time history of an impact, adopted to determine relative risk of head injury.

G-max by the standardized procedure is larger than that by the shortened procedure because of the effect of the impacting tamper and repeats of trials. Result Impact attenuation on the loose fill surface Figure 2 shows the variation of acceleration at the moment of impact. As indicated, G-max, represented by the peaks of the wave, increased with drop height. The following apparatus shall be required for implementation of the two test methods: Figure 2 shows the variation of acceleration at the moment of impact.

Support Center Support Center. One-package equipment to evaluate impact attenuation What reductions in these current impact thresholds need atsm occur to demonstrate a quantifiable decrease in these types of injuries? I for one do not subscribe to this notion and believe that a well thought out research study that analyzes all the factors related to the cause and effect of falls injuries will show:. The scope of this standard is to reduce serious head injuries.

If it is not compliant to all the standards it will be argued the injury may not have occurred.

Therefore, playground equipment should be structured to maintain safety, even when children fall from it. This specification relates only to the impact attenuation properties of playground surfacing materials and does not address other factors that contribute to fall-related injuries.


The elimination of challenge and risk in play environments v1292 known by child development experts to significantly reduce the value of the play experience and the developmental benefits of play. The coefficients of the regression f1229 for G-max also decreased as the sand depth increased.

Evaluating Playground Surfacing System for Compliance with Performance Standards

Severe head injuries are the most frequently implicated cause of death in playground equipment-related falls. The rationale used to establish these first performance thresholds continues to be used by all international playground standards organizations. More information about text formats.

Both ASTM F and F Standards state that conformance with the requirements of this specification will reduce the risk of serious injury and death from falls, adherence to this specification will not prevent all injuries and deaths. The peak of the wave, which represents G-max, became f12292 with the drop height. A fall onto a shock absorbing surface is less likely to cause a serious head injury than a fall onto a hard surface.

However, it is not as appropriate for strict measurement, compared with the standardized procedure. Attenuation of impact by loose fill surface Some types of loose fill surface are installed to attenuate the impact of fall accidents.

Section 10 also stated public playgrounds shall comply with the DOJ Standard for Accessible Designwhere applicable. The shortened procedure is as follows: Comparing standardized procedure and shortened procedure The standardized procedure was compared with the shortened procedure, using regression analysis.

One of the most serious examples can be observed in the United States, where overchildren are treated for injuries that occurred in public playgrounds each year 234. A project of this scope will take several years to complete and the children cannot afford for us to procrastinate any longer.

In fact, the score can be estimated only by statistical procedure, because G-max and the HIC are calculated from the second and third scores.

The coefficients of the regression equation for the HIC also decreased as the drop height increased.