Biochemical changes during the development of witches’ broom: the most important disease of cocoa in Brazil caused by Crinipellis perniciosa. Scarpari LM(1). Crinipellis perniciosa is the cause of witches’ broom disease of cocoa, a serious problem in South America. The aim of the project was to develop a measure of. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to determine the genome size and characterize karyotypic differences in isolates of the cacao biotype of.

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Primeira ocorrOncia de vassoura-de-bruxa na principal regiao produtora de cacau do Brasil. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Witches’ broom disease of cocoa Crinipellis perniciosa in Ecuador I. Pods are relatively small targets which are dispersed throughout the lower architecture and canopy, up to a height of several metres.

Discharged basidiospores germinated and were infectious to pre-germinated cocoa seeds causing hypocotyl hypertrophy plus root and shoot reduction Almeida et al.

For practical reasons we have decided not to translate all pages in several languages anymore because it was too heavy to maintain but some of the labels of the basic and advanced query pages are still available. An alternative method of applying copper to control cocoa pod diseases.

On this basis, post-entry quarantine is advisable in cocoa-growing regions where the disease is currently absent.

Detailed description of symptoms of witches’ broom disease of cocoa caused by Crinipellis perniciosa. Brooms usually remain green for a relatively short period.


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Obligate or homotypic synonyms: Pileus crimson tinted, generally faintly, becoming paler with age; conspicuous red-black spot in centre, with others radially arranged and of the same colour; radially grooved, campanulate, later expanded and often with a concave margin and a convex but umbilicate centre, or convex to flat with a depressed centre; mm, mostly mm diameter; if dry swells out when moistened.

Proceedings of the 6th International Cocoa Research Conference. Tropical Pest Management, 34 3: For instance, it has been shown in some cases that certain fungicides can significantly reduce pod disease incidence, although in other cases no effect has been found using the same main ingredient Laker and Rudgard, Elimination of the diseased tissues from the plantation after pruning is optional in some circumstances but necessary in others.

Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.

The dose, interval and number of sprays have all been found to affect activity. Stem canker CA and necrotic leaf NL.

Healthy seeds and seeds with non-lethal infections can be found in fruit with localized lesions, that often occur at the limit of the susceptible stage of fruit development at weeks old. The fungus appears to cause a hormonal imbalance, so that host cells are larger than usual, particularly those of the cortex and pith, and the tissues become swollen. However, accumulated cushion infection and death from witches’ broom can also be a threat to cocoa production.

Less than 4 hours or more than 20 hours is inhibitory. The discovery of a hyperparasitic fungus, Cladobotryum amazonense, on basidiomata of M. Correct timing is essential if treatments are to be effective. In cultivated cocoa, there appears to be a complete range in severity of symptoms depending on pathotype and cocoa clone.


Moniliophthora perniciosa (witches’ broom disease of cacao)

However, symptoms on mature fruit can be confused with the other major fruit diseases of cocoa caused by Phytophthora palmivora and Moniliophthora roreri. No secondary removal should be applied without a primary removal.

Fruiting bodies basidiomata or mushrooms of the fungus were only produced in pure culture relatively recently, and scientific proof of pathogenicity was perniciosaa in A Report on Cocoa Research Run Zhang 1 and Dr.

If witches’ broom is controlled, then other pod diseases in the plantation must also be taken into consideration or their incidence may increase, thereby reducing the economic benefit of successful witches’ broom control Rudgard et al. On vegetative shoots, apical dominance is lost, many axillary buds develop into lateral shoots, and a broom is formed. Cocoa Growers’ Bulletin No.

Crinipellis perniciosa

This allows the canopy to start reforming during the dry season and continue into the early rainy season when there is no risk of infection. Ethylene and tannins increased prior to symptom development and declined with the death of the infected tissues. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Diseased material on cushions should be carefully removed by cutting it off as close as possible to the bark. As the broom dries these intercellular hyphae become divided into thick-walled chlamydospores.

Present status pernociosa witches’ broom pernciosa of cocoa in Trinidad.