Focused Cardiac Ultrasound: Virtual Transthoracic Echocardiography, TTE, FOCUS, FATE, Standard views. This learning module outlines the TEE 20 standard views using video and a 3D heart model. Abbreviations xi. 1. What is echo? 1. Basic notions. 1. Viewing the heart. 3 . Echo techniques. Normal echo. Who should have an echo?.

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Qualitative assessment of intrinsic regional myocardial deformation by Doppler strain rate echocardiography in humans: Mitral regurgitation in dilated cardiomyopathy: J Ultrasound Med Biol. Important discrepancies were found in patients with coronary stenoses when comparing the results of visual wall motion assessment with those obtained by deformation analysis [ 2 ].

Also it was experimentally shown that speckle-tracking 2D-strain imaging correctly identifies segmental LV dysfunction induced by the scarring that follows myocardial infarction in rats [ 68 ]. Detection of subclinical cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis by Echocardiographic stain imaging.

Thus for a one-dimensional 1D object i. Echocardiographic strain and strain-rate imaging is a promising tool for the evaluation of myocardial function.

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We guarantee you’ll love our ultrasound courses! Longitudinal strain delay index by speckle tracking imaging. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. The Review explains the fundamental concepts of deformation imaging, describes in a comparative manner the two major deformation imaging methods TDI-derived and speckle tracking 2D-strain derived and discusses basice clinical applicability of these new echocardiographic tools, which recently have become a subject of great interest for clinicians.

The basicss of potential clinical applications is very wide due its ability to differentiate between active and passive movement of myocardial segments, to quantify intra-ventricular dyssynchrony and to evaluate components of myocardial function such as longitudinal myocardial shortening that are not visually assessable.

UniversitätsKlinikum Heidelberg: Echokardiographie

Thus, as shown by the yellow curves, despite the very low wall motion velocity in the apical region panel Aechokardiogeaphie longitudinal myocardial shortening in this region can be even higher than in basal regions panel B. A new marker of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy. Global diastolic strain rate for assessment of left ventricular relaxation and filling pressure. Comparing the accuracy of 2D-strain imaging derived from speckle tracking with TDI-derived strain imaging in patients undergoing dobutamine stress echocardiography DSE echokwrdiographie coronary angiography, Hanekom et al.


If, however, different parts of the object move with different velocities, the object will undergo deformation and will change its shape.

Regional right ventricular dysfunction in chronic pulmonary hypertension. In patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were accepted for heart transplantation HTx we found that systolic and diastolic LV dyssynchrony and dyssynergy, which were detectable by 2D-strain imaging in all investigated patients, were more closely related to hemodynamic alterations, exercise intolerance and patient outcome than LVEF [ ].

The unit of strain rate is baeics -1 and the local rate of deformation or strain per time unit equals velocity difference per unit length: Global longitudinal strain measured by two-dimensional speckle tracking is closely related to myocardial infarct size in echokardoigraphie ischemic heart disease.

Time course of 2D-strain images recorded during reduction of the LVAD Type Incor rate in a patient with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who showed relevant myocardial recovery during mechanical unloading. It has been shown that HR changes in healthy children during growth have an important impact on both systolic and diastolic myocardial strain and also on late diastolic SR calculated from color Doppler myocardial imaging [ 64 ].

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The quality of the images and films is amazing. Left ventricular function Starter Kit: WB Saunders Company; Strain rate reduction was more evident in diastole than in systole. Real time strain rate imaging of the left verntricle by ultrasound. Echocardiographic assessment of regional right ventricular function.

Impact of left ventricular lead position on the efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy: Prognostic value of longitudinal strain after primary reperfusion therapy in patients with anterior-wall acute myocardial infarction. Medical Ultrasound Learn how to use it with our 11 Diploma Courses. We have created this online interactive module to assist with teaching and learning the assessment of cardiac function with transthoracic echocardiography. A next step in development of deformation imaging by echocardiography which will be superior to the 2D strain and SR imaging will be the calculation of strain and SR in three dimensions during the same heart cycle.


Although conventional echocardiography is considered to be reliable for ventricular wall motion analysis and assessment of regional myocardial function, the visual estimation of wall motion is very subjective and therefore highly operator dependent.

In our department TDI has been routinely used since and became a cornerstone for the monitoring of cardiac allograft function and for the timing of follow-up myocardial biopsies and coronary angiographies.

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Strain imaging, echocardiography, myocardial contraction, diagnosis, prognosis. Usefulness of tissue Doppler velocity and strain dyssynchrony for predicting left ventricular reverse remodeling response after cardiac resynchronization therapy. Recently we published our observations on 2 patients with stress cardiomyopathy Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in which for the first time cardiac function was evaluated also by 2D-strain imaging [ 74 ].

Tissue Doppler-Derived Strain and Strain-Rate Imaging Tissue Doppler imaging TDIalso known as tissue velocity imaging TVIis currently accepted as a sensitive and sufficiently accurate echocardiographic tool for quantitative assessment of cardiac function [ 35 – 11 ].

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The accuracy of speckle tracking 2D-strain echocardiography in the detection and quantification of cardiac dyssynchrony was validated experimentally in canine and sheep models [ 9596 ].

When frame rate is known, the change in speckle position allows determination of its velocity. Positive strain values describe thickening, negative values describe shortening, of a given myocardial segment related to its original length. Donate to Badics Donate today!